Auto Speed Market Place – Car parts : Wheels
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This guide is accurate for most of the cars made by the listed manufacturers, but it is important to check and make sure before purchasing new aftermarket wheels.
Wheels constitute an integral part of the vehicle.
Wheels must be fitted with the correct type of lug nuts on wheel studs, or bolts. Lug nuts (aka wheel nuts in British English) are usually either flat, tapered (generally at 60 degrees and referred to as conical seat), or ball seats, meaning the mounting surfaces are flat, tapered, or spherical respectively.
Most Mercedes have ball lug seats from the factory while most aftermarket wheels have a tapered lug design. Wrong lug nuts for the wheel will not properly center it and cause wobble. Some manufacturers (e.g. Toyota and Lexus) have used taper lug nuts for steel wheels and flat seated lug nuts for alloy wheels.
Some aftermarket wheels will only fit smaller lug nuts, or not allow an ordinary lug nut to be properly torqued down because a socket will not fit into the lug hole. Tuner lug nuts were created to solve this problem by utilizing a special key to allow removal and installation with standard lug wrench or socket. The design of tuner lug nuts can range from bit style to multisided or spline drive, and are sometimes lightweight for performance purposes.
Centerbore of a wheel
The centerbore of a wheel is the size of the hole in the back of the wheel that centers it over the mounting hub of the car. Some factory wheels have a centerbore that matches exactly with the hub to reduce vibration by keeping the wheel centered. Wheels with the correct centerbore to the car they will be mounted on are known as hubcentric. Hubcentric wheels take the stress off the lug nuts, reducing the job of the lug nuts to center the wheel to the car. Wheels that are not hubcentric are known as lugcentric, as the job of centering is done by the lug nuts assuming they are properly torqued down.
Caliper Clearance (X-factor)
Caliper Clearance (X-factor): The amount of clearance built into the wheel to allow for the vehicle’s disc brake and caliper assembly.
Load capacity is the amount of weight a wheel will carry. This number will vary depending on the number of lugs, the PCD, the material used and the type of axle the wheel is used on. A wheel used on a free rolling trailer axle will carry more weight than that same wheel used on the drive or steering axle of a vehicle. All wheels will have the load capacity stamped on the back of the wheel.
A general guide to common bolt patterns by manufacturer
- BMW: 5×120 mm
- Dodge: 5×100 mm, 5×114.3 mm
- Ford: 4×108 mm, 5×114.3 mm, 5X135 mm, 5X139.7 mm
- GM (Chevy, Pontiac, etc):5x100mm, 5×115 mm, 5×120.7 mm, 6X139.7 mm
- Honda/Acura: 5×114.3 mm, 4×100 mm, 4×114.3 mm
- Jeep Wrangler JK 07-UP 17″&18″ 5x127mm 5x5in
- Mazda: 5×114.3 mm, 4×100 mm
- Nissan/Infiniti: 5×114.3 mm, 4×114.3 mm
- Peugeot/Citroen: 4x108mm
- Porsche: 5x130mm
- Renault: 5×108 mm, 4×100 mm
- Subaru: 5x100mm, 5×114.3mm
- Toyota/Lexus/Scion: 5×114.3 mm, 5×100 mm
- VW/Seat/Audi:5x100mm, 5×112 mm
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
This is the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. In the United States this information is required to be on the vehicle’s door placard. The load capacity of the total number of wheels on the vehicle combined must meet or exceed the vehicle’s GVWR.
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